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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 64

Relationships between severity of steatosis with glycemic control and carotid intima-media thickness among diabetic patients with ischemic heart disease


1 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, Jalan Hospital, Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
2 Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, Jalan Hospital, Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
3 Department of Population Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, Jalan Hospital, Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
4 Centre for Pathology Diagnostics and Research Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, Jalan Hospital, Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia

Correspondence Address:
Rohana Abdul Ghani
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, Jalan Hospital, Sungai Buloh, Selangor 47000
Malaysia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jrms.JRMS_560_17

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Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the major diseases plaguing worldwide. Several studies reported its association with ischemic heart disease (IHD). This study aims to determine the relationships between severity of steatosis with glycemic control and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) among a high-risk population of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with proven IHD. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients aged between 18 and 65 years diagnosed with T2DM with IHD (n = 150). Ultrasonography of the abdomen to determine NAFLD severity category and CIMT measurements was performed by two independent radiologists. NAFLD was graded according to the severity of steatosis (NAFLD-3, NAFLD-2, NAFLD-1, and NAFLD-0). Comparison between different stages of NAFLD (NAFLD-3, NAFLD-2, NAFLD-1, and NAFLD-0) was analyzed using Chi-square and analysis of variance tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results: The prevalence of NAFLD was 71% (n = 107). NAFLD-1 was detected in 39% of the patients, 32% had NAFLD-2, no patients with NAFLD-3, and 29% had non-NAFLD. There were no patients with NAFLD-2 having higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration was highest within the NAFLD-2. NAFLD-2 showed higher mean CIMT. Every 1% rise in HbA1c for patients with NAFLD significantly increases the CIMT by 0.03 mm (95% CI: 0.009, 0.052, P = 0.006). Conclusion: These findings suggest additional atherosclerotic risks within the NAFLD-2 group with significantly higher HbA1c and CIMT compared to the NAFLD-1 and NAFLD-0 groups. It is, therefore, vital to incorporate stricter glycemic control among patients with T2DM and IHD with moderate NAFLD as part of atherosclerotic risk management strategy.


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