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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 13

Thyroid volume and nodular and diffuse thyroid diseases by ultrasonography in pregnant women: A case–control study

1 Department of Radiology, School of Medical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Radiology, Signal and Image Processing Research Centre, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Department of Epidemiology, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
5 Department of Medicine, Southend University Hospital, Southend-on Sea, United Kingdom, Southend University Hospital, Westcliff-on-Sea, England, UK

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Farzaneh Hekmatnia
Southend University Hospital, Southend-on-Sea, Westcliff-on-Sea
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jrms.JRMS_42_18

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Background: Currently, it is shown that pregnancy may have an impact on the thyroid that can be leading to pregnancy complications such as abortion, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. The objective was to compare the thyroid volume, number and characteristics of thyroid nodules, and prevalence of diffuse thyroid diseases in a sample of Iranian pregnant women in the first trimester to nonpregnant women. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 298 pregnant and 290 nonpregnant women. Thyroid volume, maximum diameter of thyroid nodules and prevalence of moderate to highly suspicious thyroid nodules, Hashimoto's appearance and goiter were assessed using thyroid ultrasonography. Antithyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies were measured if the sonographic features were highly suggested for Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Results: The mean of total thyroid volume in pregnant and nonpregnant women was 6 and 6.5 ml, respectively (P = 0.053), and the median (interquartile range) was 6.2 and 5.5, respectively. Nodules were observed in 16.4% of pregnant and 16.6% of nonpregnant women (P = 0.845). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was detected in 6.7% of pregnant and 12.4% of nonpregnant women (P = 0.013). Anti-TPO antibodies were detected in 5% of pregnant and 9.3% of nonpregnant women (P = 0.034). Conclusion: The thyroid volume and nodule characteristics in the first trimester of pregnancy were similar to nonpregnant women. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and anti-TPO antibodies in pregnant women were significantly lower than in nonpregnant women.

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