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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 84

Comprehensibility of selected USP pictograms by illiterate and literate Farsi speakers: The first experience in Iran - Part I


1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Pharmaceuticals Division, Shahin Shahr Health Network, Shahin Shahr, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Amir H Zargarzadeh
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezar Jerib Ave., Isfahan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jrms.JRMS_713_15

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Background: Good understanding of medication instructions is paramount to a good pharmaceutical care. The aim of our study was to examine the understandability of the selected three most applicable pictograms by participants and their recall after educational mini sessions. Materials and Methods: First, nine experienced pharmacists selected the three most potentially applicable pictograms. Pictograms A to C were determined, respectively, “A-take medication with food,” “B-medication may cause drowsiness,” and “C-take medication before sleep.” In the second phase, we measured the comprehensibility of pictograms by three groups of participants (sample of 358): highly educated participants of two major universities of Isfahan (Groups 1 and 2), low-literate and illiterate individuals (Groups 3 and 4), and the rest were participants interviewed in three teaching pharmacies affiliated to the Isfahan School of Pharmacy (Group 5). The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) were used to compare the comprehensibility of pictograms. Furthermore, five qualitative questions were asked about the impact of pictograms on several parameters. Results: In the pre-follow-up period, only Group 1 (75%) understood pictogram A while pictogram B did not pass the ANSI and ISO thresholds for acceptability in none of the groups. In the pre-follow-up period, Groups 1 and 2 surpassed the ANSI threshold and Group 5 passed the ISO limit for C. In the post-follow-up period, C passed the ISO limit in Group 3. Regarding the qualitative questions, 84.1% believed that pictograms had positive impact on the correct use of medications and timing of administration. Conclusion: The groups with high level of literacy interpreted the pictograms better than those with lower levels of literacy.


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