Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Browse Articles Search Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 145
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

Previous article Browse articles Next article 
J Res Med Sci 2016,  21:6

On the occasion of World Heart Day: Do we have an effective period of cardiac rehabilitation program in Iran?

1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Mohaghegh Ardebili University, Ardebil, Iran
2 Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

Date of Web Publication28-Jan-2016

Correspondence Address:
Allahyar Golabchi
Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1735-1995.175165

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Basati F, Golabchi A. On the occasion of World Heart Day: Do we have an effective period of cardiac rehabilitation program in Iran?. J Res Med Sci 2016;21:6

How to cite this URL:
Basati F, Golabchi A. On the occasion of World Heart Day: Do we have an effective period of cardiac rehabilitation program in Iran?. J Res Med Sci [serial online] 2016 [cited 2022 Jan 22];21:6. Available from: https://www.jmsjournal.net/text.asp?2016/21/1/6/175165

According to the World Heart Federation website, World Heart Day 2015 focused on creating healthy heart environments by ensuring that everyone has the chance to make healthy heart choices. One of these choices is cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and secondary prevention.

Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. [1] The main reason of the decrease in mortality due to coronary artery disease is not just the advances in treatment of the acute coronary syndromes, but the advances in the secondary prevention methods as well. CR program is a cost-effective secondary prevention strategy used as an important part of treatment of cardiovascular diseases. [2] The benefits of CR include reduction in mortality, symptom relief, smoking cessation, improved physical fitness, risk factor modification, and improved overall psychosocial well-being. [3] The main key to CR effectiveness lies in its complete attendance by patients, usually consisting of a 24-session protocol, including hospital or home-based exercise, education, and social and emotional support. [4] In the Netherlands CR is a comprehensive multidisciplinary program with a typical duration of 6-12 weeks (2 or 3 sessions in the week), consisting of one or more group-based therapies (education, exercise training, relaxation therapy, and lifestyle modification therapy) supplemented by individual counseling when indicated (e.g., by a psychologist, a dietician, or a social worker). [3] According to the American Heart Association, CR sessions are limited to a maximum of two 1 h sessions per day up to 36 sessions furnished over a period of up to 36 weeks with the option for an additional 36 sessions and CR programs to include five components: Physician-prescribed exercise, cardiac risk factor modification (education, counseling, and behavioral intervention), psychosocial assessment, outcomes assessment, and individualized treatment plan. [5]

Incomplete participating in CR sessions may lead to the recurrence of cardiac events and its related rehospitalization, increased need for more medication, decreased quality of life, and an increased risk of comorbidity and even mortality. Last studies shows that participation in incomplete CR programs (24 sessions) is necessary to achieve optimal improvement in vital indices such as metabolic equivalents and resting heart rate and, therefore, incomplete CR sessions may not warrant this efficacy. [6] Despite its proven benefits, CR referral and participation rates have been very low compared with other evidence-based treatments. [7] In Iran, the lack of accessibility to program sites and lack of insurance coverage contributes to the vast underuse of CR services. [8] While the majority of insurance companies in the USA cover complete CR for cardiovascular patients, [9] major insurance companies in Iran cover only 70% of 10 sessions of hospital-based CR and patients pay the costs for the remaining sessions; a very small number of patients have complementary insurance that cover all rehabilitation sessions. One of the most inhibitive factors for participation of patients in these courses could be elimination by reviewing of insurance policies in the rehabilitation area and for all patients to have an opportunity for participating in these actions.

The importance of comprehensive CR should be strengthened in the future, because of the continuous changes in the population, the increasingly favorable effects obtainable by strict secondary prevention follow-up, and the increasing demand for a better quality of life in the modern society. [10]

  References Top

Mendis S, Alwan A, eds. Prioritized research agenda for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2011. p 1-50.  Back to cited text no. 1
Basati F, Sadeghi M, Kargarfard M, Golabchi A, Yazdekhasti S. Effects of a cardiac rehabilitation program on systolic function and left ventricular mass in patients after myocardial infarction and revascularization. J Res Med Sci 2012;17:S28-32.   Back to cited text no. 2
Golabchi A, Basati F, Kargarfard M, Sadeghi M. Can cardiac rehabilitation programs improve functional capacity and left ventricular diastolic function in patients with mechanical reperfusion after ST elevation myocardial infarction? A double-blind clinical trial. ARYA Atheroscler 2012;8:125-9.   Back to cited text no. 3
Suaya JA, Shepard DS, Normand ST, Ades PA, Prottas J, Stason WB. Use of cardiac rehabilitation by Medicare beneficiaries after myocardial infarction or coronary bypass surgery. Circulation 2007;116:1653-62.   Back to cited text no. 4
Hills LD, Smith PK, Anderson JL, Bittl JA, Bridges CR, Byrne JG, et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA guideline for coronary artery bypass graft surgery: Executive summary: A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;12:123-210.  Back to cited text no. 5
Sarafzadeh J, Nejatian M, Saeb NS. The necessity for a complete cardiac rehabilitation program to achieve better improvement in physical function and cardiac parameters. J Cardiovasc Thorac Res 2009;1:23-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
Moradi B, Maleki M, Esmaeilzadeh M, Abkenar HB. Physician-related factors affecting cardiac rehabilitation referral. J Tehran Heart Cent 2011;6:187-92.  Back to cited text no. 7
Leon AS, Franklin BA, Costa F, Balady GJ, Berra KA, Stewart KJ, et al.; American Heart Association; Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Exercise, Cardiac Rehabilitation, and Prevention); Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism (Subcommittee on Physical Activity); American association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. Cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease: An American Heart Association scientific statement from the Council on Clinical Cardiology (Subcommittee on Exercise, Cardiac Rehabilitation, and Prevention) and the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism (Subcommittee on Physical Activity), in collaboration with the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. Circulation 2005;111:369-76.  Back to cited text no. 8
Thirapatarapong W, Thomas RJ, Pack Q, Sharma S, Squires RW. Commercial insurance coverage for outpatient cardiac rehabilitation in patients with heart failure in the United States. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 2014;34:386-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
Mampuya WM. Cardiac rehabilitation past, present and future: An overview. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2012;2:38-49.  Back to cited text no. 10


Previous article  Next article
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
Authors Contribution

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded150    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal