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Overcrowding in emergency departments: A review of strategies to decrease future challenges
Mohammad H Yarmohammadian, Fatemeh Rezaei, Abbas Haghshenas, Nahid Tavakoli
2017, 22:23 (16 February 2017)
DOI:10.4103/1735-1995.200277  PMID:28413420
Emergency departments (EDs) are the most challenging ward with respect to patient delay. The goal of this study is to present strategies that have proven to reduce delay and overcrowding in EDs. In this review article, initial electronic database search resulted in a total of 1006 articles. Thirty articles were included after reviewing full texts. Inclusion criteria were assessments of real patient flows and implementing strategies inside the hospitals. In this study, we discussed strategies of team triage, point-of-care testing, ideal ED patient journey models, streaming, and fast track. Patients might be directed to different streaming channels depending on clinical status and required practitioners. The most comprehensive strategy is ideal ED patient journey models, in which ten interrelated substrategies are provided. ED leaders should apply strategies that provide a continuous care process without deeply depending on external services.
  3,259 784 4
Environmental factors influencing the risk of autism
Padideh Karimi, Elahe Kamali, Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi, Mojgan Karahmadi
2017, 22:27 (16 February 2017)
DOI:10.4103/1735-1995.200272  PMID:28413424
Autism is a developmental disability with age of onset in childhood (under 3 years old), which is characterized by definite impairments in social interactions, abnormalities in speech, and stereotyped pattern of behaviors. Due to the progress of autism in recent decades, a wide range of studies have been done to identify the etiological factors of autism. It has been found that genetic and environmental factors are both involved in autism pathogenesis. Hence, in this review article, a set of environmental factors involved in the occurrence of autism has been collected, and finally, some practical recommendations for reduction of the risk of this devastating disease in children are represented.
  2,712 548 6
Melatonin and human mitochondrial diseases
Reza Sharafati-Chaleshtori, Hedayatollah Shirzad, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Amin Soltani
2017, 22:2 (27 January 2017)
DOI:10.4103/1735-1995.199092  PMID:28400824
Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causative factors in a wide variety of complications such as neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia/reperfusion, aging process, and septic shock. Decrease in respiratory complex activity, increase in free radical production, increase in mitochondrial synthase activity, increase in nitric oxide production, and impair in electron transport system and/or mitochondrial permeability are considered as the main factors responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction. Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, is selectively taken up by mitochondria and acts as a powerful antioxidant, regulating the mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Melatonin increases the permeability of membranes and is the stimulator of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. It also acts as an inhibitor of lipoxygenase. Melatonin can cause resistance to oxidation damage by fixing the microsomal membranes. Melatonin has been shown to retard aging and inhibit neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia/reperfusion, septic shock, diabetes, cancer, and other complications related to oxidative stress. The purpose of the current study, other than introducing melatonin, was to present the recent findings on clinical effects in diseases related to mitochondrial dysfunction including diabetes, cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, and diseases related to brain function.
  2,510 485 7
Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran
Adel Ghorani-Azam, Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani, Mahdi Balali-Mood
2016, 21:65 (1 September 2016)
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.
  2,452 499 9
Efficacy and safety of rituximab in neuromyelitis optica: Review of evidence
Masoud Etemadifar, Mehri Salari, Omid Mirmosayyeb, Mehdi Serati, Roham Nikkhah, Mozhde Askari, Emad Fayyazi
2017, 22:18 (16 February 2017)
DOI:10.4103/1735-1995.200275  PMID:28458709
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with preferential involvement in the optic nerve and spinal cord with a widespread spectrum of clinical features; multiple therapeutic agents have been used with different results. Recent evidence points to B-cell-mediated humoral immunity in the pathogenesis of NMO. Rituximab targets the CD20 antigen on B-cells. Treatment leads to profound B-cell depletion, principally over an antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity mechanism. The aim of our study was to review clinical trials to elucidate the impact of rituximab on the relapse rate, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and progression of disability in NMO. We performed a comprehensive review of all studies that evaluated clinical and paraclinical effects of rituximab on NMO. MEDLINE-PubMed, Web of Sciences, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases up to June 2016 included in our searches. In addition, reference lists from articles identified by search as well as a key review article to identify additional articles included in the study. Rituximab targets the CD20 antigen on B-cells and decreases attack frequency and severity in patients with NMO; however, it does not remove attacks, even when modifying treatment to achieve B-cell depletion. Most of the investigations revealed that EDSS significantly in all patients with rituximab treatment will be decreased after treatment with rituximab. No new or enlarged lesions or pathological gadolinium enhancement was observed in serial brain and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging, except for those observed concomitantly with clinical relapses and the median length of spinal cord lesions was significantly reduced after therapy. Rituximab targets the CD20 antigen and decreases attack frequency and severity in patients with NMO.
  2,120 610 4
Alpha-synuclein structure, functions, and interactions
Fatemeh Nouri Emamzadeh
2016, 21:29 (9 May 2016)
At present, when a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is made, serious damage has already been done to nerve cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta. The diagnosis of PD in its earlier stages, before this irreversible damage, would be of enormous benefit for future treatment strategies designed to slow or halt the progression of this disease that possibly prevents accumulation of toxic aggregates. As a molecular biomarker for the detection of PD in its earlier stages, alpha-synuclein (α-syn), which is a key component of Lewy bodies, in which it is found in an aggregated and fibrillar form, has attracted considerable attention. Here, α-syn is reviewed in details.
  1,675 516 30
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome: Genetics, immunopathogenesis, clinical findings, and treatment modalities
Hassan Hashemi, Masoumeh Mohebbi, Shiva Mehravaran, Mehdi Mazloumi, Hamidreza Jahanbani-Ardakani, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi
2017, 22:53 (26 April 2017)
DOI:10.4103/jrms.JRMS_1050_16  PMID:28567072
The hyperimmunoglobulin E syndromes (HIESs) are very rare immunodeficiency syndromes with multisystem involvement, including immune system, skeleton, connective tissue, and dentition. HIES are characterized by the classic triad of high serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), recurrent staphylococcal cold skin abscess, and recurrent pneumonia with pneumatocele formation. Most cases of HIES are sporadic although can be inherited as autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive traits. A fundamental immunologic defect in HIES is not clearly elucidated but abnormal neutrophil chemotaxis due to decreased production or secretion of interferon γ has main role in the immunopathogenesis of syndrome, also distorted Th1/Th2 cytokine profile toward a Th2 bias contributes to the impaired cellular immunity and a specific pattern of infection susceptibility as well as atopic-allergic constitution of syndrome. The ophthalmic manifestations of this disorder include conjunctivitis, keratitis, spontaneous corneal perforation, recurrent giant chalazia, extensive xanthelasma, tumors of the eyelid, strabismus, and bilateral keratoconus. The diagnosis of HIES is inconclusive, dependent on the evolution of a constellation of complex multisystemic symptoms and signs which develop over the years. Until time, no treatment modality is curative for basic defect in HIES, in terms of cytokines/chemokines derangement. Of note, bone marrow transplant and a monoclonal anti-IgE (omalizumab) are hoped to be successful treatment in future.
  1,835 328 5
The psychoneuroendocrine-immunotherapy of cancer: Historical evolution and clinical results
Paolo Lissoni, Giusy Messina, Arianna Lissoni, Rovelli Franco
2017, 22:45 (26 April 2017)
DOI:10.4103/jrms.JRMS_255_16  PMID:28567065
The prognosis of the neoplastic diseases depends not only on the biogenetic characteristics of cancer cells but also on the immunological response of patients, which may influence the biological features of cancer cells themselves as well as the angiogenic processes. Moreover, the immune system in vivo is under a physiological psychoneuroendocrine (PNE) regulation, mainly mediated by the brain opioid system and the pineal gland. In more detail, the anticancer immunity is stimulated by the pineal hormone melatonin (MLT) and inhibited by the opioid system, namely, through a mu-opioid receptor. Several alterations involving the pineal endocrine function and the opioid system have been described in cancer patients, which could play a role in tumor progression itself. Therefore, the pharmacological correction of cancer progression-related anomalies could contribute to control cancer diffusion, namely, the pineal endocrine deficiency and the hyperactivity of brain opioid system. In fact, the administration of pharmacological doses of the only MLT has already been proven to prolong the 1-year survival in untreatable metastatic cancer patients. Better results may be achieved by associating other pineal indoles to MLT, mu-opioid antagonists, cannabinoids, beta-carbolines. Moreover, these neuroendocrine combinations may be successfully associated with antitumor cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12, as a PNE-immune cancer therapy as well as with antitumor plants as PNE-phytotherapy of cancer in an attempt to propose possible anticancer treatments also to patients with disseminated cancer and untreatable according to the standard oncology.
  1,658 273 2
A review of plant-based compounds and medicinal plants effective on atherosclerosis
Mehrnoosh Sedighi, Mahmoud Bahmani, Sedigheh Asgary, Fatemeh Beyranvand, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
2017, 22:30 (15 March 2017)
DOI:10.4103/1735-1995.202151  PMID:28461816
Atherosclerosis is one of the most important cardiovascular diseases that involve vessels through the development of fatty streaks and plaques. Plant-based compounds can help treat or prevent atherosclerosis through affecting the involved factors. The main purpose of this review article is to investigate and introduce medicinal plants and their potential activities regarding antioxidant properties, effective on lipids level and development of plaque, atherosclerosis, and progression of atherosclerosis as well as the development of cardiovascular disease and ischemia. To search for the relevant articles indexed in Information Sciences Institute, PubMed, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, and Scopus between 1980 and 2013, with further emphasis on those indexed from 2004 to 2015, we used these search terms: atherosclerosis, antioxidant, cholesterol, inflammation, and the medicinal plants below. Then, the articles with inclusion criteria were used in the final analysis of the findings. Plant-based active compounds, including phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants, can be effective on atherosclerosis predisposing factors and hence in preventing this disease and associated harmful complications, especially through reducing cholesterol, preventing increase in free radicals, and ultimately decreasing vascular plaque and vascular resistance. Hence, medicinal plants can contribute to treating atherosclerosis and preventing its progression through reducing cholesterolemia, free radicals, inflammation, vascular resistance, and certain enzymes. They, alone or in combination with hypocholesterolemic drugs, can therefore be useful for patients with hyperlipidemia and its complications.
  1,655 274 6
Quantitative assessment of Wilms tumor 1 expression by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia
Hossein Ayatollahi, Mohammad Hadi Sadeghian, Mahmood Naderi, Amir Hossein Jafarian, Seyyede Fatemeh Shams, Neda Motamedirad, Maryam Sheikhi, Afsane Bahrami, Sepideh Shakeri
2017, 22:54 (26 April 2017)
DOI:10.4103/jrms.JRMS_448_16  PMID:28567073
Background: The Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene is originally defined as a tumor suppressor gene and a transcription factor that overexpressed in leukemic cells. It is highly expressed in more than 80% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, both in bone marrow (BM) and in peripheral blood (PB), and it is used as a powerful and independent marker of minimal residual disease (MRD); we have determined the expression levels of the WT1 by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) in PB and BM in 126 newly diagnosed AML patients. Materials and Methods: This study was done in molecular pathology and cancer research center from April 2014 to June 2015, RQ-PCR method was used to determine the WT1 gene expression in BM and/or PB samples from 126 patients of AML, we cloned both WT1 and ABL genes for creating a standard curve, and we calculate copy number of WT1 genes in patients. Results: A total of 126 AML patients consist of 70 males (55.6%) and 56 females (44.4%), with a median age of 26 years; 104 (81%) patients out of 126 show overexpression of WT1 gene. We also concomitant monitoring of fusion transcripts (PML RARa, AML1-ETO, MLL-MLL, CBFb-MYH11, or DEK-CAN) in our patients, the AML1-ETO group showing remarkably low levels of WT1 compared with other fusion transcript and the CBFB-MYH11 showing high levels of WT1. Conclusion: We conclude that WT1 expression by RQ-PCR in AML patients may be employed as an independent tool to detect MRD in the majority of normal karyotype AML patients.
  1,608 267 -
Role of Vitamin D on glycemic control and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Mostafa Saif-Elnasr, Iman M Ibrahim, Manal M Alkady
2017, 22:22 (16 February 2017)
DOI:10.4103/1735-1995.200278  PMID:28413419
Background: Vitamin D deficiency may play a key role in the development of impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and metabolic syndrome. Several studies have shown that Vitamin D has an antioxidant property. We aimed to investigate 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in patients with T2DM and in nondiabetic healthy controls and to ascertain the impact of 25(OH)D levels on glycemic control and oxidative stress in T2DM patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty male patients with T2DM and twenty age- and socioeconomic status-matched male healthy controls were included in the study. Fasting and postprandial blood sugar and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured. Enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was determined by spectrophotometric assay, and serum levels of 25(OH)D were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results: Serum Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in patients with T2DM than healthy controls (P = 0.015). There was a significantly lower GPx activity in patients with T2DM than controls (P = 0.048), but the difference in SOD activity did not reach statistical significance. There was a significant negative correlation between serum Vitamin D levels and HbA1c (P = 0.016), but no statistical correlation was shown between serum Vitamin D levels and GPx and SOD. Conclusion: We conclude that low level of Vitamin D might play a significant role in T2DM pathogenesis. Hence, Vitamin D supplementation may improve glycemic control and oxidative stress in T2DM.
  1,573 277 3
Molecular biology of frozen shoulder-induced limitation of shoulder joint movements
Jiaming Cui, Wei Lu, Yong He, Luoyong Jiang, Kuokuo Li, Weimin Zhu, Daping Wang
2017, 22:61 (30 May 2017)
DOI:10.4103/jrms.JRMS_1005_16  PMID:28616048
Frozen shoulder is a chronic condition characterized by pain in the shoulder and restriction of movements in all directions. Some patients are left with long-term limitation of shoulder joint activity with various severities, which results in reduced quality of life. Currently, there is a paucity of literature on the molecular biology of frozen shoulder, and the molecular biological mechanism for periarthritis-induced limitation of shoulder joint movements remains unclear. Research in this field is focused on inflammation and cytokines associated with fibrosis. Repeated investigations confirmed alterations of specified inflammatory mediators and fibrosis-associated cytokines, which might be involved in the pathogenesis of frozen shoulder by causing structural changes of the shoulder joint and eventually the limitation of shoulder movements. The aim of this article is to review studies on molecular biology of frozen shoulder and provide a reference for subsequent research, treatment, and development of new drugs.
  1,507 281 2
Effects of Vitamin D treatment on thyroid autoimmunity
Yasin Simsek, Ilkay Cakir, Mikail Yetmis, Oguzhan Sitki Dizdar, Osman Baspinar, Ferhat Gokay
2016, 21:85 (18 October 2016)
Background: Vitamin D was shown to be related to autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) in the previous studies. We aimed to investigate the relationship between Vitamin D and thyroid autoimmunity. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two patients, diagnosed with AITD by the endocrinology outpatient clinic, were included in this prospective study. All of the patients had both AITD and Vitamin D deficiency, defined as serum values <20 ng/mL. They were randomly assigned into two groups. The first group included 46 patients and the second one included 36 patients. The first group was treated with Vitamin D for 1 month at 1000 IU/day. The second group served as the control group and was not treated with Vitamin D replacement. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, free T4 (fT4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and Vitamin D levels were measured at the initiation of the study and again at 1 month in all patients. Results: Two groups were similar with regard to age, sex, and type of thyroid disease. Whereas TPO-Ab (before; 278.3 ± 218.4 IU/ml and after; 267.9 ± 200.7 IU/ml) and TgAb (before; 331.9 ± 268.1 IU/ml and after; 275.4 ± 187.3 IU/ml) levels were significantly decreased by the Vitamin D replacement therapy in group 1 (P = 0.02, P = 0.03, respectively), the evaluated parameters in the control group did not significantly change (P = 0.869, P = 0.530, respectively). In addition, thyroid function tests did not significantly change with Vitamin D replacement in two groups. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of AITDs. Since supplementation of the Vitamin D decreased thyroid antibody titers in this study in Vitamin D deficient subjects, in the future Vitamin D may become a part of AITDs' treatment, especially in those with Vitamin D insufficiency. Further clinical and experimental studies are required to understand the effect of Vitamin D on AITD.
  1,555 211 5
Effects of nonpharmacological interventions on reducing fatigue after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Hedayat Jafari, Yadollah Jannati, Hassan Mahmoodi Nesheli, Somayeh Hassanpour
2017, 22:13 (27 January 2017)
DOI:10.4103/1735-1995.199094  PMID:28458705
Fatigue is one of the main complaints of patients undergoing allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Since nonpharmacological interventions are cost-effective and causes fewer complications, this study aimed to review the studies performed on the effects of nonpharmacological interventions on fatigue in patients undergoing HSCT during September 2016. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Magiran, and IRANDOC databases were searched using Persian and English keywords. A total of 1217 articles were retrieved, 21 of which were used in this study. Exercise is known as an effective intervention in alleviating physical and mental problems of patients undergoing stem cell transplant. This review-based study showed that nonpharmacological methods such as exercise might be effective in decreasing fatigue in patients undergoing stem cell transplant. There is a multitude of studies on some of the complementary and alternative therapy methods, such as music therapy, yoga, relaxation, and therapeutic massage. These studies demonstrated the positive effects of the aforementioned therapies on reduction of fatigue in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation. All the investigated methods in this study were nonaggressive, safe, and cost-effective and could be used along with common treatments or even as an alternative for pharmacological treatments for the reduction, or elimination of fatigue in patients undergoing stem cell transplantation. Given the advantages of complementary and alternative medicine, conducting further studies on this issue is recommended to reduce fatigue in patients after stem cell transplantation.
  1,484 277 2
The effect of Vitamin D supplementation in disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus patients with Vitamin D deficiency: A randomized clinical trial
Hadi Karimzadeh, Mohammad Shirzadi, Mansour Karimifar
2017, 22:4 (27 January 2017)
DOI:10.4103/1735-1995.199089  PMID:28400826
Background: The aim of this study was to check the effectiveness of Vitamin D supplementation on the disease activity of Vitamin D-deficient systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 45 Vitamin D-deficient SLE patients were studied in two groups, namely interventional and placebo groups. The interventional group patients were treated with Vitamin D (50,000 unit/weekly Vitamin D for 12 weeks and then 50,000 unit/monthly for 3 months) and placebo group patients were only administered the placebo. The level of Vitamin D and the level of disease activity using SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) were measured before and after intervention period in each group, and for intra- and between-groups comparison, we used t-test and repeated measure ANOVA. Results: A total of 90 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean of Vitamin D was increased significantly after therapy in interventional group (17.36 ± 4.26 ng/ml vs. 37.69 ± 5.92 ng/ml, P < 0.001). The mean of Vitamin D had no significant difference before and after intervention in placebo group (16.78 ± 4.39 ng/ml vs. 16.62 ± 4.61 ng/ml, P = 0.53). The mean of disease activity (SLEDAI) was not different significantly before and after Vitamin D administration in interventional group (3.09 vs. 1.62 ± 1.25, P = 0.39). The mean of disease activity (SLEDAI) was not different significantly before and after intervention in placebo group (3.09 vs. 1.98 ± 2.47, P = 0.42). Conclusion: According to our study, it is suggested that using Vitamin D in patients with SLE could not have better outcomes in this regard. However, there are many unknown environmental or biological factors which are associated with the disease activity of SLE and have not been identified yet.
  1,497 258 4
Effects of Vitamin D deficiency treatment on metabolic markers in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients
Parichehr Vahabi Anaraki, Ashraf Aminorroaya, Massoud Amini, Awat Feizi, Bijan Iraj, Azamosadat Tabatabaei
2017, 22:5 (27 January 2017)
DOI:10.4103/1735-1995.199090  PMID:28400827
Background: The aim of the current trial was to investigate the effect of Vitamin D treatment on metabolic markers in people with Vitamin D deficiency and thyroid autoimmunity. Materials and Methods: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 65 Vitamin D deficient euthyroid or hypothyroid patients with positive TPO-Ab were enrolled. They randomly allocated into two groups to receive oral Vitamin D3 (50000 IU weekly) and placebo for 12 weeks. Serum concentration of calcium, phosphorus, albumin, C-reactive protein, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein were measured in both groups before and after the trial. Homeostasis model assessment estimates of beta cell function (HOMA-B) and HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated before and after trial in both groups. Results: Thirty-three and thirty-two participants were allocated to Vitamin D-treated and placebo-treated groups, respectively. Mean (standard error) level of Vitamin D increased significantly in Vitamin D-treated group (45.53 [1.84] ng/mL vs. 12.76 [0.74] ng/mL, P = 0.001). The mean of HbA1c and insulin was increased significantly both in Vitamin D-treated and placebo-treated groups (P < 0.05). Other variables did not meet a significant change after trial (P = NS). In between-group comparison, there was not any significant difference between Vitamin D-treated and placebo-treated groups regarding measures of HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, FPG, HbA1c, and TG (P = NS). Conclusion: Our findings showed that weekly 50000 IU oral Vitamin D3 for 12 weeks did not improve metabolic markers, IR, or insulin secretion in Vitamin D deficient patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis.
  1,468 279 1
Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy: A surgical technique for liver resections
Behnam Sanei, Saba Sheikhbahaei, Mohammad Hossein Sanei, Amin Bahreini, Hamid Reza Jafari
2017, 22:52 (26 April 2017)
DOI:10.4103/jrms.JRMS_829_16  PMID:28567071
Background: Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) is a novel surgical technique liver resection in traditionally nonresectable primary intrahepatic tumors or colorectal liver metastases. Materials and Methods: From June 2013 to March 2014, patients with primary tumor of liver or colorectal tumors with liver metastasis were selected to evaluate whether they met the initial criteria for ALPPS procedure. Results: Nine patients enrolled in the study with primary diagnoses of colon and rectosigmoid cancer, carcinoid tumor, gastrointestinal stromal tumor of small intestine, hepatocellular carcinoma, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET). Four candidates excluded from the study prior or during the first step operation due to fatty liver, hepatic fibrosis, peritoneal seeding, and multiple small intestine metastases. Five patients underwent two stages of ALPPS with the interval of about 1 week. Liver hypertrophy was 100% among our candidates after the initial step. One postoperative death happened because of massive pulmonary thromboembolism Recurrence of liver metastasis was seen in one patient. Hepatic failure Class B and A were observed in two patients which did not progress during follow-up period. One patient developed an enterocutaneous fistula. Discussion: We recommend to use 2 organ bags, one for wrapping right lobe and the other one for covering visceral organs and also do liver biopsy in suspicious cases of damaged liver parenchyma and laparoscopic exploration of abdomen for seeding and multiple metastases prior to laparotomy. Conclusion: As the procedure has not been well established and verified by oncologists yet, further studies are required to define the exact indications of ALPPS.
  1,483 243 1
Pimpinella anisum L. fruit: Chemical composition and effect on rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Ali Asadollahpoor, Mohammad Abdollahi, Roja Rahimi
2017, 22:37 (15 March 2017)
DOI:10.4103/1735-1995.202147  PMID:28465696
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a group of chronic liver disorders caused by irregular accumulation of fat in liver tissue. The current study aimed to evaluate chemical composition and the effect of fruit extract and essential oil of Pimpinella anisum in experimental model of NAFLD. Materials and Methods: Sixty rats were randomly divided into ten groups, six in each group. NAFLD was induced in rats using choline-deficient diet for 90 days, followed by 30 days of treatment with 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day of hydroethanolic extract (AE) as well as 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg/day of essential oil (AO). Blood samples were collected in the final day, and lipid profile, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as well as biomarkers of oxidative damage including myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidation, total thiol molecules, and ferric-reducing ability of plasma were measured. Liver tissue sections of the sacrificed rats were also assessed histologically. Results: AE and AO significantly reversed increase in the plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerol and decrease in high-density lipoprotein level in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Serum levels of AST and ALT were also significantly modified by treatment with AE and AO (P < 0.05). Biomarkers of oxidative stress were modulated by administration of AE and AO (P < 0.05). Histological assessments also confirmed the effectiveness of treatments by reduced macrovesicular steatohepatitis. Conclusion: It could be concluded that P. anisum fruit extract and essential oil have beneficial effects in the treatment of NAFLD. Further studies are necessary to confirm safety and efficacy of this medicinal plant in clinical setting.
  1,506 189 -
Transcription factor 7-like 2 polymorphism and context-specific risk of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia
Abbasali Palizban, Mahnaz Rezaei, Hossein Khanahmad, Mohammad Fazilati
2017, 22:40 (15 March 2017)
DOI:10.4103/1735-1995.202141  PMID:28465699
Background: The transcription factor 7-like 2 gene (TCF7L2) is an element of the Wnt signaling pathway. There is lack of evidence if TCF7L2 has a functional role in lipid metabolism and regulation of the components constitutes the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). The aims of this study were to evaluate whether the risk allele of TCF7L2 gene polymorphism is associated with dyslipidemia and MetSyn. Materials and Methods: The MetSyn subjects were participated only based on the National Cholesterol Education Program – Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria. In this case–control study, the DNA from MetSyn patients without (n = 90) and with type 2 diabetes (T2D) (n = 94) were genotyped. Results: The results show that the genotype-phenotype for CC, CT/TT of TCF7L2 gene polymorphism correlated with body mass index and waist circumference in MetSyn and MetSyn + T2D subjects (r = −0.949 and r = −0.963, respectively). The subjects that only possess MetSyn but are not diabetics show the 2 h postprandial glucose and fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those subjects have both abnormality. The level of triglyceride in CT/TT carriers in MetSyn was higher than CC carriers (P = 0.025). A comparison with the controls subjects, the frequencies of the T allele in the groups of MetSyn (46.66%) and MetSyn + T2D (47.34%) show significantly different (P < 0.05). The odds ratios for T allele in (MetSyn)/(normal), (MetSyn + T2D)/(normal), and in (MetSyn + T2D)/(MetSyn) were 3.59 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33–9.67, P = 0.0093), 3.76 (95% CI, 1.40–10.07, P = 0.0068), and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.55 2.11, P = 0.834), respectively. Conclusion: The results revealed the important insights essential for the role of TCF7L2 that the T allele of TCF7L2 plays a significant role in the susceptibility to dyslipidemia, MetSyn, and T2D.
  1,474 214 3
The effect of Vitamin D and calcium plus Vitamin D on leg cramps in pregnant women: A randomized controlled trial
Ameneh Mansouri, Mojgan Mirghafourvand, Sakineh Mohammad Alizadeh Charandabi, Moslem Najafi
2017, 22:24 (16 February 2017)
DOI:10.4103/1735-1995.200271  PMID:28413421
Background: This study intended to determine the effects of Vitamin D and calcium-Vitamin D in treating leg cramps in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial on 126 participants, 18–35-year-old pregnant women with a minimum of two leg cramps per week who were referred to health-care centers in Tabriz-Iran in 2013. The participants were allocated to three 42 member groups using a randomized block design. For 42 days, the intervention groups took a 1000 unit Vitamin D pill or 300 mg calcium carbonate plus a 1000 unit Vitamin D pill, and the control group received a placebo pill every day. The participants were evaluated with regard to the frequency, length, and pain intensity of leg cramps during the week before and during the 3rd and 6th week of the intervention. The ANCOVA and repeated measurement test were used to analyze the data. Results: Results showed that controlling for the effects before the intervention, calcium-Vitamin D, and Vitamin D supplements had no effect on the frequency, length, and pain intensity of leg cramps. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the calcium-Vitamin D and the Vitamin D supplements have no effect on the frequency, length, and pain intensity of leg cramps during the 6 weeks of the study.
  1,463 224 -
Urinary tract infections in kidney transplant recipients 1st year after transplantation
Seyyede Fatemeh Shams, Elham Shaarbaf Eidgahi, Zahra Lotfi, Azad Khaledi, Sepideh Shakeri, Maryam Sheikhi, Afsane Bahrami
2017, 22:20 (16 February 2017)
DOI:10.4103/1735-1995.200274  PMID:28458711
Background: One of the main causes of adverse complications following kidney transplantation is urinary tract infection (UTI). This study was done to define the incidence rate, clinical profiles, causative microorganisms, and UTI risk factors among kidney transplant recipients in Mashhad city. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we perused medical files of 247 kidney recipients who underwent transplant surgery at Mashhad University Montaserie Hospital, during 2012–2014. All patients were followed for UTI during the 1st year after surgery. Results: 75 episodes of UTI developed by 152 pathogens in 56 (22.7%) of patients during 1-year follow-up. 26.6% of total UTIs were diagnosed within the 1st month after transplantation. The most frequently isolated uropathogens were Escherichia coli (55.3%, n = 84). The high rate of candiduria (8.5%) was observed, too. Conclusion: UTI is known as one of the hospitalization reasons in kidney transplantation recipients. Defining appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis against bacterial and fungal agents and early removal of urethral catheter are suggested to decrease posttransplantation complications.
  1,444 211 -
The effect of vitamin D supplementation on gestational diabetes in high-risk women: Results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial
Shole Shahgheibi, Fariba Farhadifar, Bahar Pouya
2016, 21:2 (28 January 2016)
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnancy, leading to increase in the frequency of preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, neonatal bacterial vaginosis, and gestational diabetes. The current study was designed and implemented to investigate the effect of vitamin D during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy in reducing the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women who are at high risk [history of GDM, birth macrosomia, family history, and high body mass index (BMI)]. Materials and Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial, 90 pregnant women who had at least one risk factor for GDM were randomized into intervention (46 participants) and control (44 participants) groups. Participants in the intervention group took 5000 units of vitamin D daily and the control group took placebo until the 26th week of pregnancy. Then the glucose challenge test (GCT) and the glucose tolerance test (GTT) were performed to evaluate GDM. Results: Mean ± standard deviation (SD) age was 31.28 ± 6.38 years and 29 ± 6.24 years for the intervention group and the placebo group, respectively, (P > 0.05). In addition, there were no significant differences between two groups in terms of vitamin D levels and GCT (P > 0.05), and the difference was not significant. The incidence of diabetes in the intervention groups was statistically lower than in control group (11.4% vs 34.8; P < 0.01). The results showed that abnormal GCT in the placebo group was statistically higher than in intervention group (35.9% vs 10.9 P < 0.005). Conclusion: The results of the current study showed that the prescription of vitamin D supplementation in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy was effective in reducing GDM and controlling GTT and GTC.
  1,237 391 5
The cutting-edge training modalities and educational platforms for accredited surgical training: A systematic review
Antonello Forgione, Salman Y Guraya
2017, 22:51 (26 April 2017)
DOI:10.4103/jrms.JRMS_809_16  PMID:28567070
Background: Historically, operating room (OR) has always been considered as a stand-alone trusted platform for surgical education and training.However, concerns about financial constraints, quality control, and patient safety have urged the surgical educators to develop more cost-effective, surgical educational platforms that can be employed outside the OR. Furthermore, trained surgeons need to regularly update their surgical skills to keep abreast with the emerging surgical technologies. This research aimed to explore the value of currently available modern surgical tools that can be used outside the OR and also elaborates the existing laparoscopic surgical training programs in world-class centers across the globe with a view to formulate a blended and unified structured surgical training program. Materials and Methods: Several data sources were searched using MeSH terms “Laparoscopic surgery” and “Surgical training” and “Surgical curriculum” and “fundamentals of endoscopic surgery” and “fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery” and “Telementoring” and “Box trainer.” The eligibility criteria used in data extraction searched for original and review articles and by excluding the editorial articles, short communications, conference proceedings, personal view, and commentaries. Data synthesis and data analysis were done by reviewing the initially retrieved 211 articles. Irrelevant and duplicate and redundant articles were excluded from the study. Results: Finally, 12 articles were selected for this systematic review. Data results showed that a myriad of cutting-edge technical innovations have provided modern surgical training tools such as the simulation-based mechanical and virtual reality simulators, animal and cadaveric labs, telementoring, telerobotic-assisted surgery, and video games. Surgical simulators allow the trainees to acquire surgical skills in a tension-free environment without supervision or time constraints. Conclusion: The existing world-renowned surgical training centers employ various clusters of training tools that essentially endeavor to embed the acquisition of knowledge and technical skills. However, a unified training curriculum that may be accepted worldwide is currently not available.
  1,408 216 1
An epidemiological study of etiology and clinical characteristics in patients with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head
Feng Liu, Wei Wang, Lei Yang, Benjie Wang, Jianchuan Wang, Weifang Chai, Dewei Zhao
2017, 22:15 (16 February 2017)
DOI:10.4103/1735-1995.200273  PMID:28458706
Background: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a common disease with high disability rate. However, a few studies investigate the etiology and clinical characteristics of nontraumatic ONFH patients in China. Therefore, we conducted this cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Totally, information of 7268 nontraumatic ONFH patients treated between August 2005 and August 2015 was extracted from the medical records. The extracted information included the age, gender, diagnostic criteria, cause of nontraumatic ONFH, types of steroid use, and types of alcohol. Results: Among these included patients, there were 5126 (70.5%) male patients with average age of 44.5 years and 2142 (29.5%) female patients with average age of 47.6 years (P = 0.54). The number of steroid-, alcohol-, steroid/alcohol-, and idiopathic-induced nontraumatic ONFH men patients was 1684, 2310, 364, and 768, respectively, and nontraumatic ONFH women patients was 1058, 482, 140, and 462, respectively. Meanwhile, we found that both the levels of triglycerides (P = 0.03) and low-density lipoprotein (P = 0.02) were significantly changed in the idiopathic-induced nontraumatic ONFH patients. Conclusion: These results indicated the earlier onset of nontraumatic ONFH in male patients than in female patients, different main etiology for male (alcohol consumption) and female (steroid use) patients, and close relationship between the lipid metabolism and idiopathic-induced nontraumatic ONFH. Our findings could be helpful for researchers to investigate the pathogenesis of ONFH and aid the clinicians in the early prevention and diagnosis of nontraumatic ONFH.
  1,393 228 3
The effect of dry needling on the radiating pain in subjects with discogenic low-back pain: A randomized control trial
Ashraf Mahmoudzadeh, Zahra Sadat Rezaeian, Abdolkarim Karimi, Jan Dommerholt
2016, 21:86 (18 October 2016)
Background: Disk herniation is the most common cause of radiating low back pain (LBP) in subjects under 60 years of age. The present study aims to compare the effect of dry needling (DN) and a standard conservative approach on the pain and function in subjects with discogenic radiating LBP. Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight subjects with discogenic radicular LBP were screened and randomized into control (Standard physical therapy, n = 29) and experimental group (Standard physical therapy and DN, n = 29). Radiating pain intensity and disability were measured using visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability indices at baseline, at the end of treatment and 2 months after the last intervention session. The changes in pain intensity and disability were studied using a 3 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance considering time as the within-subject factor and group as the between-subject. Results: Pain intensity and disability scores decreased significantly in both experimental and control groups (experimental group: VAS = 37.24, Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] =28.48, control group: VAS = 45.5, ODI = 32.96), following the intervention. The change continued during the follow-up period (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Pain and disability improvement, however, were more significant in experimental group, both in post intervention (experimental group: VAS = 25.17, ODI = 22.17, control group: VAS = 42.4, ODI = 30.27) (P = 0.05 and P = 0.03, respectively) and follow-up measures (P = 0.006 and P = 0.002, respectively). Conclusion: Both intervention strategies seem to significantly improve pain and disability immediately following intervention, where the improvement continued during 2 months after the last active intervention. Therefore, supplementary DN application may enhance the effect of the standard intervention considerably.
  1,257 357 4