Year : 2016 | Volume : 21 | Issue : 1 | Page : 126-
Gastrointestinal dysfunction in idiopathic Parkinsonism: A narrative review
Mehri Salari1, Emad Fayyazi2, Omid Mirmosayyeb3,
1 Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; Medical Student Research Committee, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
Currently, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease (PD) are well-recognized problems and are known to be the initial symptoms in the pathological process that eventually results in PD. Many types of PD-associated GI dysfunctions have been identified, including weight loss, nausea, hypersalivation, dysphagia, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, constipation, defecatory dysfunction, and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. These symptoms can influence on other PD symptoms and are the second most significant predictor of the quality of life of these patients. Recognition of GI symptoms requires vigilance on the part of clinicians. Health-care providers should routinely ask direct questions about GI symptoms during office visits so that efforts can be directed at appropriate management of these distressing manifestations. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy are two forms of neurodegenerative Parkinsonism. Symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions such as GI dysfunction are common in patients with parkinsonian disorders. Despite recent progress in the recognition of GI dysfunctions, there are a few reviews on the management of GI dysfunction and GI symptoms in idiopathic Parkinsonism. In this review, the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and treatment of each GI symptom in PD, MSA, and prostate-specific antigen will be discussed.