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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21

A randomized controlled trial comparing effects of a low-energy diet with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease


1 Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Food and Beverages Safety Research Center, Urmia, Iran
2 Urmia Imam Khomeini University Hospital, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
3 Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran
4 Department of Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rasoul Zarrin
Department of Nutrition, School of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Pardis Nazlou, Sero Ave, Urmia
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1735-1995.254821

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Background: Weight loss is the cornerstone of NAFLD management, but weight maintenance is difficult. Some studies have suggested that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) might have beneficial effects in NAFLD. We aim to compare the effects of a low-energy diet with n-3 PUFA supplementation on liver enzymes, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors in NAFLD. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized controlled trial conducted in Urmia in Iran from October 2016 to May 2017. One hundred and fourteen eligible patients were randomly assigned to one of the three following groups: low-energy diet group, n-3 PUFA supplementation (fish oil) group (1500 mg/d), or control group for 12 weeks. Liver enzymes, lipid profile, insulin resistance, and body composition were assessed before and after the intervention. Results: One hundred and four patients completed the study. All groups lost weight, but the reductions were greater in the diet group (−2.97 ± 2.79 kg, P = 0.001). The diet group had significant decreases in fat mass compared to other groups. Insulin resistance, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly decreased only in the diet group, and patients who lost weight ≥4% showed significantly larger decreases in serum liver enzymes. N-3 PUFA had no beneficial effects on the study outcomes. Conclusion: We found that 1500 mg/d n-3 PUFA supplied for 12 weeks, in contrast to 3.40 ± 2.98% weight loss, does not improve liver enzymes, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors in NAFLD patients.


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