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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 42

Use of sedative drugs at reducing the side effects of voiding cystourethrography in children


1 Department of Clinical Toxicology, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2 Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
3 Clinical Research Unit, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
4 Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
5 Department of Pediatric Nephrology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Yalda Ravanshad
Clinical Research Development Center, Ghaem Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1735-1995.202139

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Background: Imaging of the kidneys and urinary tract has a significant and critical role for diagnosis of genitourinary system diseases. Although technological progress goes toward less invasive approaches, some of the current methods are still invasive and annoying. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is the best and most accurate method for diagnosis and grading of vesicoureteral reflux. VCUG is a distressful procedure that gives serious anxiety and pain in a large proportion of children and fear for parents; therefore, using effective sedative drugs with the least side effects is necessary and should be considered. Materials and Methods: In this review article, importance and efficacy of different drugs before catheterization VCUG be compared in the base of literature survey on EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane source. Results: We found that the treatment should be based on nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods; nonpharmacological treatment includes the psychological preparation before procedures as a safety precaution with little or no risk modality, as well as reassuring support. The presence of parents during painful procedures cannot alleviate children distress. Pharmacological methods include oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) and intranasal use (0.2 mg/kg) that had been used 10 min before the procedure can effect on anterograde amnesia and sedation without considerable effect on accuracy and grade of reflux. Nitric oxide has a shorter recovery time versus midazolam but has a potential risk for deep sedation and may interfere with the child's voiding phase. Conclusion: In summary, oral midazolam of 0.5–0.6 mg/kg or 0.2 mg/kg intranasal is acceptable drug that can be used before VCUG.


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