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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 125

The relationship between fruit and vegetable intake with gastroesophageal reflux disease in Iranian adults


1 Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; Students' Research Committee, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Students' Research Committee, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute; Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Integrative Functional Gastroenterology Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Parvane Saneei
Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jrms.JRMS_283_17

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Background: Findings from studies that investigated the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were inconsistent. We aimed to assess the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and GERD among a large group of Iranian adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study on 3979 adults, a validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess usual dietary intakes including fruits and vegetables. The presence of heartburn sometimes or more during the past 3 months were considered as having GERD. Results: The prevalence of GERD among study population was 23.9%. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, those with the highest consumption of fruits had 25% lower risk for GERD, in comparison to those with the lowest intake (odds ratio [OR] = 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59–0.97). Vegetable intake was not significantly related to the risk of GERD in crude or multivariable-adjusted models. However, participants with the highest intake of fruits and vegetables had 33% lower risk of GERD (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.51–0.88), after adjustment for confounders. Women with the highest fruit and vegetable intake had 36% lower risk for GERD (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45–0.91). Overweight/obese participants in the last tertile of fruit consumption had 42% lower risk for GERD, in comparison to the first category (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.42–0.83). Furthermore, participants with body mass index higher than 25 kg/m2 and higher intake of fruits and vegetables had 53% lower risk for GERD (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.32-0.69). Conclusion: We found inverse associations between fruit intake as well as fruit and vegetable intake and risk of GERD among Iranian adults.


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