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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 101

Comprehensibility of selected united states pharmacopeia pictograms by illiterate and literate farsi speakers: The first experience in Iran – Part II


1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Amir H Zargarzadeh
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezar Jerib Ave, Isfahan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jrms.JRMS_322_17

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Background: Conveying information to patients on how to use medications at the dispensing sessions and retention of this information by the patients is essential to the good pharmaceutical care. The aim of our study was to examine the comprehensibility of the selected three potentially usable pictograms by five groups of subjects who had different levels of literacy in both before and after mini educational sessions. Materials and Methods: Nine experienced pharmacists selected three potentially usable pictograms in Isfahan pharmacies: Pictograms D through F representing respectively: “do not take medication during pregnancy,” “keep medication in the refrigerator,” and “take medication with plenty of water.” Then, graduate students of two major universities (Groups 1 and 2), low-literate and illiterate individuals (Groups 3 and 4), and walk – in patients in the pharmacies affiliated to the Isfahan School of Pharmacy (Group 5) were asked about the comprehensibility of these pictograms before and after mini-education sessions. The American National Standard Institute and International Organization for Standardization standards were used for comparisons. Results: In the pre-follow-up period, D and E pictograms were most understandable (87.4%, 87.2%). In the post-follow-up, E and D pictograms were understood most (98.0%, 95.3%), followed by F (92.9%). Among the improvements measured in post-follow-up, pictogram F showed the biggest improvement (P = 0.0). Conclusion: Pictograms depicting the use of medications during pregnancy (D) and storing medication in the refrigerator (E) was easier to understand by our study population. The groups with the high level of literacy interpreted the pictograms better than those with lower levels of literacy.


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