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REVIEW ARTICLE
J Res Med Sci 2016,  21:126

Gastrointestinal dysfunction in idiopathic Parkinsonism: A narrative review


1 Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2 Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; Medical Student Research Committee, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

Date of Submission13-Feb-2016
Date of Decision13-Jul-2016
Date of Acceptance02-Sep-2016
Date of Web Publication26-Dec-2016

Correspondence Address:
Omid Mirmosayyeb
Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Research Institute, Medical Student Research Committee, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1735-1995.196608

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  Abstract 

Currently, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease (PD) are well-recognized problems and are known to be the initial symptoms in the pathological process that eventually results in PD. Many types of PD-associated GI dysfunctions have been identified, including weight loss, nausea, hypersalivation, dysphagia, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, constipation, defecatory dysfunction, and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. These symptoms can influence on other PD symptoms and are the second most significant predictor of the quality of life of these patients. Recognition of GI symptoms requires vigilance on the part of clinicians. Health-care providers should routinely ask direct questions about GI symptoms during office visits so that efforts can be directed at appropriate management of these distressing manifestations. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy are two forms of neurodegenerative Parkinsonism. Symptoms of autonomic dysfunctions such as GI dysfunction are common in patients with parkinsonian disorders. Despite recent progress in the recognition of GI dysfunctions, there are a few reviews on the management of GI dysfunction and GI symptoms in idiopathic Parkinsonism. In this review, the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and treatment of each GI symptom in PD, MSA, and prostate-specific antigen will be discussed.

Keywords: Multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy


How to cite this article:
Salari M, Fayyazi E, Mirmosayyeb O. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in idiopathic Parkinsonism: A narrative review. J Res Med Sci 2016;21:126

How to cite this URL:
Salari M, Fayyazi E, Mirmosayyeb O. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in idiopathic Parkinsonism: A narrative review. J Res Med Sci [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Aug 22];21:126. Available from: http://www.jmsjournal.net/text.asp?2016/21/1/126/196608

This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief, Editorial Board and Authors, who noted number of unattributed sections of content with high rate of similarity.







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